This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals.
In the theory proposed by Andreas Demetriouwith his colleagues, all of these factors are systematically studied. The first is the level of processing potentials which involves information processing mechanisms underlying the ability to attend to, select, represent, and operate on information.
The other two of levels involve knowing processes, one oriented to the environment and another oriented to the self. The general model of the architecture of the developing mind integrating concepts from the theories of Demetriou and Case.
Processing potentials[ edit ] Mental functioning at any moment occurs under the constraints of the processing potentials that are available at a given age. Processing potentials are specified in terms of three dimensions: Speed of processing refers to the maximum speed at which a given mental act may be efficiently executed.
It is measured in reference to the reaction time to very simple tasks, such as the time needed to recognize an object. Control of processing involves executive functions that enable the person to keep the mind focused on a goal, protect attention of being captured by irrelevant stimuli, timely shift focus to other relevant information if required, and inhibit irrelevant or premature responses, so that a strategic plan of action can be made and sustained.
Reaction time to situations where one must choose between two or more alternatives is one measure of control of processing. Stroop effect tasks are good measures of control of processing. Representational capacity refers to the various aspects of mental power or working memory mentioned above.
Six such environment-oriented systems are described: Forming hierarchies of interrelated concepts about class relationships is an example of the domain of this system. For instance, the general class of plants includes the classes of fruits and vegetables, which, in turn, include the classes of apples and lettuce, etc.
The quantitative system deals with quantitative variations and relations in the environment. Mathematical concepts and operations are examples of the domain of this system. The causal system deals with cause-effect relations. Operations such as trial-and-error or isolation of variable strategies that enable a person to decipher the causal relations between things or persons and ensuing causal concepts and attributions belong to this system.
The spatial system deals with orientation in space and the imaginal representation of the environment. Our mental maps of our city or the mental images of familiar persons and objects and operations on them, such as mental rotation, belong to this system.
Different types of logical relationships, such as implication if The social system deals with the understanding of social relationships and interactions.
Mechanisms for monitoring non-verbal communication or skills for manipulating social interactions belong to this system.
This system also includes understanding the general moral principles specifying what is acceptable and what is unacceptable in human relations.
The domain specificity of these systems implies that the mental processes differ from the one system to the other. Compare, for instance, arithmetic operations in the quantitative system with mental rotation in the spatial system. The first require the thinker to relate quantities; the other require the transformation of the orientation of an object in space.
Moreover, the different systems require different kinds of symbols to represent and operate on their objects. These differences make it difficult to equate the concepts and operations across the various systems in the mental load they impose on representational capacity, as the models above assume.
Case also recognized that concepts and executive control structures differ across domains in the semantic networks that they involve.The major theme of Vygotsky’s theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition.
Vygotsky () states: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level.
noun. the material world, especially as surrounding humankind and existing independently of human activities. the natural world as it exists without human beings or civilization: In nature, wild dogs hunt in packs.; the elements of the natural world, as mountains, trees, animals, or rivers: The abandoned power plant was reclaimed by nature, covered in overgrowth and home to feral animals.
e-Learning Theories in Practice: A Comparison of three Methods Felix Mödritscher Institute for Information Systems and Computer Media (IICM) Graz University of Technology, and Campus02, University of Applied Sciences Degree. A Comparison of Two Theories of Learning -- Behaviorism and Constructivism as applied to Piaget and Vygotsky described elements that helped predict what children understand Piaget’s theory of cognitive development suggested that humans are unable to.
Vygotsky emphasized that the most important force into a child development was the social environment unlike Piaget theory of development heavily focus on the evolutionary biology.
Both psychologists took notice in children pretend playing and becoming roles of people in society. Jan 14, · Piaget’s theory claims that the development of thinking and language in an individual can be traced back to the actions, perceptions and imitations by little children.
Vygotsky’s theory, on the other hand, postulates that there is a strong connection between learning language and the development of thinking; Piaget and Vygotsky approach learning in different ways/10(34).