When in George Orwell—social conservative, Little Englander, intellectual cosmopolitan—hopefully envisioned an English socialist revolution, he assured his readers and himself that such a mere political event, like all such past convulsions, would prove no more than a surface disturbance. Rather, by its very nature—by its inherent logic, and by the ideology, aspirations, and world-historical forces from which it springs and to which it gives expression—it perforce obliterates that culture. This essay attempts, in an admittedly eccentric way, to support that sweeping assertion.
CCKW AA Creating digital weaponry The following is an exclusive essay by the Gaijin development team to explain how guns' real life behaviour is translated into the game. Hence the focus is primarily on the ground forces part of War Thunder.
Also the tone of the text is more personal than usual on the WT Wikipedia. Weapon We really love the variety of the military technology from various countries, and we always try to tune its behavior to get it as close to the real-life version as possible.
For this reason, we have to pay attention to tuning weapons as well — this is the only way we can show and give emphasis to the entire scope of variety in military vehicles, in addition to showcasing their firepower.
Each weapon is unique in its own way, and in order to reproduce this uniqueness, we study a mass of documentation and scrupulously tune not only the weapons, but even each separate ammunition type for each of them. This approach allows us to convey the spirit of each military vehicle in our game as precisely as we can.
First we will tell you how we tune machine guns and cannons. Aircraft and tank weapons work on similar principles, so for the sake of this example, we'll just take one — the mm DT cannon, which was installed on the tanks like the IS-2, IS-3 and the IS-4M. Using this weapon's tuning as an example, we'll show you how all the other weapons in the game are tuned and how they work.
The weapon parameters include such variables as its spread and the technical upper limit for its rate of fire. While tuning the weaponry, just like when we tune the shells, we use different documentation like field tests and technical documentation for the vehicles themselves.
The search for correct documentation is one of the most difficult and slow processes because different sources show different and often conflicting data.
Sometimes it takes time to verify the source, since we have to do reseaech of all the data available. Aiming data charts for BR shell, that were used in a DT cannon. At the moment, the rate of fire in our game is an averaged value, since in real life, reload time depends on a multitude of variables.
Among other things, these variables include how the ammunition is stored when expending ammunition, this forces the loader to get shells from a less convenient place in the vehicle and the weight and shape of the shells for example, heavy and bulky shells get harder to reload over a longer period of time.
We have plans to simulate reloading with such mechanics taken into account, which means introducing a variable rate of fire depending on the state of the ammunition, the loader's fatigue, and the position of the turret itself, which defines which ammunition stowage area is closer and which farther away.
For example, the Patton houses just a small part of its ammunition right next to the gunner — the rest is in stowage areas located in a floor-level section, which take a lot longer to access.
If we introduce such a system, this will mean that the first rounds will be loaded much more quickly than the current reload time, and later rounds will take much longer. This system is still only in development, however. Rate of fire is displayed in terms of shots per second, and our weapon has a value of 0.
This is the minimal reload time for any round for this vehicle with maxed out crew skills. The spread is calculated in the following way: From the firing tables we know the circular error probability CEP of the shot for both horizontal and vertical deviation axes at a distance of m.
For example, the given cannon has a CEP equal to 0. As half of both axes of dispersion are equal to four CEP for either the vertical or horizontal, it equals 1. That means that at m, the DT's maximum spread will amount to roughly 2. Many weapons, of course, will have different mean average deviation values for horizontal and vertical and then the spread will appear to be ellipse shaped.
At the same time, in half of the cases, the shell will hit at half distance from the edges closer to the center than at the maximum level of angular displacement.
This is how we simulate the level of weapon accuracy comparable to the reality of real combat vehicles. Ellipse and dispersion scales by distance, by direction and by height. Shells Now that the weapon has its primary characteristics and is ready for battle, we move on to tuning its ammunition.
A great many forms of ammunition were used, and listing them all along with describing how they work is a subject for a separate and long treatise. To show the adjustments we make, we'll use one of the shells for our weapon as an example — a pointed armour-piercing high-explosive round.
The wall protects part of the tank from shrapnel and resulting shockwave from the explosion. You can easily understand different shell effects by just looking at the shell icons.
First of all, we set such parameters as the shell's weight 25 kgits calibre 0. These values determine the round's ricochet and normalization, the basic kinetic damage parameters, and the round's additional properties, such as the presence of explosive material.
Next we have its ballistic settings the round's energy lossand the chance that the round will cause a fire when it hits a fire-vulnerable module — this setting is separate from the explosive setting, and we can use it to simulate the chance of ignition from tracers if tracer ammunition is used or ignition from sparks produced when a round hits an obstacle.
In addition, there are settings like the round's fragmenting action, the detonator parameters and the power of the explosion itself.I. Introduction. The Gungywamp Complex in Groton, Connecticut contains house foundations, colonial roads, and historic stone walls.
Researchers, archaeologists, and historians are in general agreement about the historic origins of these features. The title of the book I chose is A Single Shard by Linda Sue Park. Linda Sue Park was born in Urbana, Illinois on March 25, and was the daughter of Korean immigrants.
The purely visual, by its very nature is a 2D data set, flatness assumes a complete 2D data set, outside of the problematic nature of an image and its ‘thickness’.
Britain is the common name for the sovereign state of the United Kingdom, the political entity comprising England, Wales, Scotland (which make up the island of Great Britain) and Northern Ireland.
Web applications scalability is a common problem most of the web architect face. Any internet facing web application may require to be highly scalable due to heavy load of traffic. Unfortunately, the Be bug reporting system strips off the names of the people who report the bugs (to protect them from retribution!?) and so I don't know who wrote this.