An excerpt from the Treaty of New Echota, Decemberwhich led to the removal of Cherokee to reservations west of the Mississippi River. This excerpt of the treaty contains the articles and stipulations regarding the removal of the Cherokee, the cession of all their lands east of the Mississippi, and the signatures of the above-mentioned Treaty Party as well as that of John F. Schermerhorn, Principal Treaty Commissioner. The cherokee nation hereby cede relinquish and convey to the United States, all the lands owned, claimed or possessed by them East of the Mississippi River, and hereby release, all their claims upon the United States for spoilations of every Kind for and in consideration of the sum of Five millions of Dollars to be expended, paid and invested in the manner stipulated and agreed upon in the following articles.
Free to expand, American foreign policy throughout the nineteenth century worked to the disadvantage of the Indians. Portions of these tribes had accepted the teachings of white missionaries and accepted Christianity, white inventions, and even the concept of slavery.
The Cherokee chief Sequoyah devised a written form of the Cherokee language and the tribe published a newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix.
While a significant number of Indians ceded their lands to the US government, many resisted removal. Many of the "civilized" Indians resisted knowing that they depended on interactions with whites for survival.
Others, who had clung to their ancient customs, were reluctant to abandon their ancestral lands. Many of the latter were full- blooded Indians, as opposed to the many mixed bloods produced from years of intermixing with whites. Full bloods were often resentful of mixed bloods, who were more likely to give in to the wishes of the US government.
When Andrew Jackson became president inhe quickly instituted a coercive removal policy. Inthe Indian Removal Act granted Jackson funds and authority to remove the Indians by force if necessary. The Georgia legislature passed a resolution stating that afterIndians could not be parties to or witnesses in court cases involving whites.
Treaties signed in and had begun the removal of the Chickasaws from Alabama and the Choctaws from Alabama. Inthe Georgia militia attacked Creeks residing in the state.
In that year, 15, Creeks were removed and forced west of the Mississippi. Between andthe federal government spent million on a war to eject the Seminoles from Florida. The Cherokees attempted legal resistance to removal. Inthey declared themselves an independent nation within Georgia, only to have the Georgia legislature pass laws giving it jurisdiction over the nation.
The Supreme Court ruled that the Cherokees were neither a state nor a nation. However, in Worcester v. Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokees were a "domestic dependent nation" and were thereby entitled to protection.
This decision carried only minimal weight. Andrew Jackson reportedly responded to the decision saying "John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it. Most Cherokees rejected the treaty, but resistance was futile.
Between and bands of Cherokee Indians moved west of the Mississippi along the so-called Trail of Tears. Between 2, and 4, of the 16, migrating Cherokees died. The Northwestern Indians put up mild resistance to removal but met with a similar fate.
Most notable among the resistance was that of chief Black Hawk, who mounted significant resistance in both and in Illinois.The removal of the Cherokee Nation illuminates the consequences of strident disputes over states’ rights, federal authority, and the place of non-Americans in American society.
The military records highlight the failure of Congress to provide adequate funds for . The Cherokee chief Sequoyah devised a written form of the Cherokee language and the tribe published a newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix.
While a significant number of Indians ceded their lands to the US government, many resisted removal. And be it further enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for the President to have the same superintendence and care over any tribe or nation in the country to which they may remove, as contemplated by this act, that he is now authorized to have over them at their present places of residence: Provided, That nothing in this act contained shall be construed as authorizing or directing .
Yet, only fourteen months later, Jackson prompted Congress to pass the Removal Act, a bill that forced Native Americans to leave the United States and settle in . Chapter 12 Test: The Age of Jackson. STUDY. PLAY. the tragic journey of the Cherokee people from their homeland to Indian Territory between and ; thousands of cherokee dies.
Native Americans saw no other choice but to sign treaties exchanging their land for land in the West. Other the treaties they would be moved to an area.
Cherokee removal, part of the Trail of to reach an agreeable compromise Principal Chief John Ross met with President Jackson to discuss the possibility that Cherokee might give up some of their land for money and land to the west of the Mississippi River.
Jackson turned this deal down resulting in Ross suggesting $20 million as a base for.