National Park Service The National Park Service preserves unimpaired the natural and cultural resources and values of the national park system for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this and future generations. The National Park Service cooperates with partners to extend the benefits of natural and cultural resource conservation and outdoor recreation throughout this country and the world. They are the most remarkable collection of places in America for recreation and learning. Visitors can immerse themselves in places where events actually happened and enjoy some of the most significant natural and historic places in America.
Criteria[ edit ] Seal watching near Malusi Islands in Estonia.
Ecotourism is tourism which is conducted responsibly to conserve the environment and sustain the well-being of local people. Builds environmental awareness Provides direct financial benefits for conservation Provides financial benefits and empowerment for local people Respects local culture conservation of biological diversity and cultural diversity through ecosystem protection promotion of sustainable use of biodiversity, by providing jobs to local populations sharing of all socio-economic benefits with local communities and indigenous peoples by having their informed consent and participation in the management of ecotourism enterprises tourism to unspoiled natural resources, with minimal impact on the environment being a primary concern.
For many countries, ecotourism is not simply a marginal activity to finance protection of the environmentbut a major industry of the national economy. For example, in Costa RicaEcuadorNepalKenya, Madagascar and territories such as Antarcticaecotourism represents a significant portion of the gross domestic product and economic activity.
Self-proclaimed practitioners and hosts of ecotourism experiences assume it is achieved by simply creating destinations in natural areas.
According to critics of this commonplace and assumptive practice, true ecotourism must, above all, sensitize people to the beauty and the fragility of nature. These critics condemn some operators as greenwashing their operations: According to the Oxford English Dictionaryecotour was first recorded in and ecotourism, "probably after ecotour", in A tour of or visit to an area of ecological interest, usually with an educational element; in later use also a similar tour or visit designed to have as little detrimental effect on the ecology as possible or undertaken with the specific aim of helping conservation efforts.
Tourism to areas of ecological interest typically exotic and often threatened natural environmentsesp. One source claims the terms were used earlier.
The failure to acknowledge responsible, low-impact ecotourism puts legitimate ecotourism companies at a competitive disadvantage.
Many environmentalists have argued for a global standard of accreditation, differentiating ecotourism companies based on their level of environmental commitment, creating a standard to follow. A national or international regulatory board would enforce accreditation procedures, with representation from various groups including governments, hotels, tour operators, travel agents, guides, airlines, local authorities, conservation organizations, and non-governmental organizations.
Crinion suggests a Green Stars System, based on criteria including a management plan, benefit for the local community, small group interaction, education value and staff training.
Environmental impact assessments could also be used as a form of accreditation. Feasibility is evaluated from a scientific basis, and recommendations could be made to optimally plan infrastructure, set tourist capacity, and manage the ecology.
This form of accreditation is more sensitive to site specific conditions. Some countries have their own certification programs for ecotourism. Costa Rica, for example, runs the Certification of Sustainable Tourism CST program, which is intended to balance the effect that business has on the local environment.
The CST program focuses on a company's interaction with natural and cultural resources, the improvement of quality of life within local communities, and the economic contribution to other programs of national development.
CST uses a rating system that categorizes a company based upon how sustainable its operations are. Based upon these criteria, the company is evaluated for the strength of its sustainability. The measurement index goes from 0 to 5, with 0 being the worst and 5 being the best.
More initiatives should be carried out to improve their awareness, sensitize them to environmental issues, and care about the places they visit.
With the confidence of ecotourists and intimate knowledge of the environment, tour guides can actively discuss conservation issues.
Informing ecotourists about how their actions on the trip can negatively impact their environment and the local people. A tour guide training program in Costa Rica's Tortuguero National Park has helped mitigate negative environmental impacts by providing information and regulating tourists on the parks' beaches used by nesting endangered sea turtles.
These corporations finance and profit from the development of large scale ecotourism that causes excessive environmental degradation, loss of traditional culture and way of life, and exploitation of local labor. In Zimbabwe and Nepal's Annapurna region, where underdevelopment is taking place, more than 90 percent of ecotourism revenues are expatriated to the parent countries, and less than 5 percent go into local communities.
Local peoples have a vested interest in the well-being of their community, and are therefore more accountable to environmental protection than multinational corporations, though they receive very little of the profits.
The lack of control, westernization, adverse impacts to the environment, loss of culture and traditions outweigh the benefits of establishing large scale ecotourism. The increased contributions of communities to locally managed ecotourism create viable economic opportunities, including high-level management positions, and reduce environmental issues associated with poverty and unemployment.
Because the ecotourism experience is marketed to a different lifestyle from large scale ecotourism, the development of facilities and infrastructure does not need to conform to corporate Western tourism standards, and can be much simpler and less expensive.
Profits accrue locally and import leakages are reduced. When such investments are required, it is crucial for communities for find a company or non-governmental organization that reflects the philosophy of ecotourism; sensitive to their concerns and willing to cooperate at the expense of profit.
The basic assumption of the multiplier effect is that the economy starts off with unused resources, for example, that many workers are cyclically unemployed and much of industrial capacity is sitting idle or incompletely utilized.
By increasing demand in the economy, it is then possible to boost production. If the economy was already at full employment, with only structural, frictional, or other supply-side types of unemployment, any attempt to boost demand would only lead to inflation.SUMMARY.
This chapter defines natural hazards and their relationship to natural resources (they are negative resources), to environment (they are an aspect of environmental problems), and to development (they are a constraint to development and can be aggravated by it).
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass grupobittia.com means responsible travel to natural areas, conserving the environment, and improving the well-being of the local people.
Its purpose may be to educate the traveler, to provide funds for. Tourism and the Environment Case Studies on Goa, India, and the Maldives Kalidas Sawkar, Ligia Noronha, Antonio Mascarenhas, Tourism development has many social impacts. The Maldives has avoided much social * Attraction of external.
The foremost independent, not-for-profit research organization in Canada. We deliver insights on economics, public policy and organizational performance. However, the impacts of tourism on development vary from one country to another, which means that this economic activity does not always lead to increased economic development, especially in the the literature: neo-colonialism and external dependence; the accentuation of territorial, social and economic imbalances.
Evaluating Transportation Economic Development Impacts Victoria Transport Policy Institute 2 Executive Summary Economic development refers to progress toward a community’s economic goals such as increased employment, income, productivity, property values, and tax revenues.