Development economics is easy to characterize as one of the three major subfields of economics, along with microeconomics and macroeconomics. More specifically, development economics resembles economic history in that it seeks to explain the changes that occur in economic systems over time.
Donate India Steps Up Climate Change Efforts As international climate negotiations progress this week in Bangkok, Thailand, India has shown signs of more proactive engagement on climate change issues both internationally and at home.
While the Indian government continues to emphasize poverty alleviation and economic development as the country's highest priorities, recent stances on domestic emission reductions indicate that India is taking considerable steps to encourage more constructive global climate talks.
India joins a growing contingent of developing countries that "are making very significant efforts to show what they are doing to address climate change and indicate what more they are willing to do," according to U.
Until recently, India had repeatedly rejected calls to quantify its targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions on the grounds that this would jeopardize national poverty alleviation goals. But two weeks ago, in a surprising reversal, India agreed to quantify its efforts to mitigate climate change.
Ramesh said India would reduce emissions by "a broadly indicative number," although the reductions would still not be bound by international law. At the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate in Italy Investment patterns in india July, India joined 16 other countries in declaring that the increase in global average temperature above pre-industrial levels should not exceed 2 degrees Celsius.
This goal remains somewhat controversial, however, as there is still no clear agreement on how countries will share the burden for reducing global emissions.
All countries that are party to the U. Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC are required to submit periodic " national communications " that report on their carbon emissions and climate mitigation activities.
But India, like other developing countries, has not had to submit these reports as regularly or in as much detail as industrialized countries, especially for those actions that are not internationally funded. These recent overtures from India's government are a sign of the country's growing investment in the success of the Copenhagen climate negotiations in December, Ramesh said.
Strengthening efforts at home India's investment in climate change appears to be ramping up domestically as well.
Last month, the Ministry of Environment and Forests released a report listing 20 initiatives that the country is undertaking to address climate change at home. The report mentions reforestation as a priority on India's environmental agenda.
A major drive is under way nationwide to add 0. These initiatives will help offset 11 percent of India's annual emissions, according to the Ministry report. The report also touts the government's recent approval of two of the eight "missions" that comprise the National Action Plan on Climate Change: It is the most ambitious solar plan that any country has put forward so far.
The Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency contains initiatives designed to improve the efficiency of energy use across sectors. The government has said the program will include a series of mandated efficiency standards for vehicles, buildings, and appliances; a market-based mechanism to trade energy-efficiency certificates; and other mechanisms to finance efficiency efforts, such as tax exemptions and insurance funds.
The Ministry has also floated a proposal to create a National Environmental Protection Authority that would monitor and evaluate the implementation of environmental efforts in India.
The proposal comes as part of a new drive from the Ministry to improve its "accountability and transparency," as outlined in a recent video that asks viewers to provide feedback on Ministry activities.
India firm on equity concerns Despite its increasingly proactive engagement on climate issues, India has not waivered from its position that equity concerns must underlie the international climate negotiations.
The government insists that, despite a common goal of global climate stabilization, each country has a different responsibility to address the problem. Topping India's agenda have been appeals for more ambitious emissions cuts from industrialized countries as well as larger commitments to provide financial and technical support to the developing world.
Krishna at a U. At the meeting, Krishna called on industrialized countries to cut their carbon emissions "at least 40 percent by " from levels and asked them to consider changes in lifestyle patterns to achieve this shift.
This cannot continue," he said. Krishna emphasized the importance of focusing on climate change adaptation as well as mitigation. This article is a product of Eye on Earth, Worldwatch Institute's online news service.
For permission to reprint Eye on Earth content, please contact Juli Diamond at jdiamond worldwatch.Investment Patterns in India 1. India | Investment Patterns Abhishek Anand | Kunal AhujaGroup 7 Amit Mirchandani | Nihit Jain Vaibhav Kukreja | Vaibhav Sathe 2.
savings and investment In India capital output ratio has been hovering around 4. It is lower in agriculture which ranges from 1 to 2, higher in manufacturing where it ranges from to and more or less the same in service sector/5(4).
Financial Literacy, Savings and Investment Pattern in India Please purchase PDF Split-Merge on grupobittia.com to remove this watermark.
The difference between a country's external financial assets and liabilities is its net international investment position (NIIP). A country's external debt includes both its government debt and private debt, and similarly its public and privately held (by its legal residents) external assets are also taken into account when calculating its NIIP.
Note that commodities, as well as currencies. more comprehensive study of the determinants of international investment patterns that allows the joint analysis of both bilateral and aggregate positions. The structure of the rest of the paper is as follows.
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